Evaluating Performance#

The Green’s functions based interpolations in Verde are all linear regressions under the hood. This means that we can use some of the same tactics from sklearn.model_selection to evaluate our interpolator’s performance. Once we have a quantified measure of the quality of a given fitted gridder, we can use it to tune the gridder’s parameters, like damping for a Spline (see Model Selection).

Verde provides adaptations of common scikit-learn tools to work better with spatial data. Let’s use these tools to evaluate the performance of a Spline on our sample air temperature data.

import cartopy.crs as ccrs
import dask
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import pyproj
from sklearn.model_selection import ShuffleSplit

import verde as vd

data = vd.datasets.fetch_texas_wind()

# Use Mercator projection because Spline is a Cartesian gridder
projection = pyproj.Proj(proj="merc", lat_ts=data.latitude.mean())
proj_coords = projection(data.longitude.values, data.latitude.values)

region = vd.get_region((data.longitude, data.latitude))
# For this data, we'll generate a grid with 15 arc-minute spacing
spacing = 15 / 60

Splitting the data#

We can’t evaluate a gridder on the data that went into fitting it. The true test of a model is if it can correctly predict data that it hasn’t seen before. scikit-learn has the sklearn.model_selection.train_test_split function to separate a dataset into two parts: one for fitting the model (called training data) and a separate one for evaluating the model (called testing data). Using it with spatial data would involve some tedious array conversions so Verde implements verde.train_test_split which does the same thing but takes coordinates and data arrays instead.

The split is done randomly so we specify a seed for the random number generator to guarantee that we’ll get the same result every time we run this example. You probably don’t want to do that for real data. We’ll keep 30% of the data to use for testing (test_size=0.3).

train, test = vd.train_test_split(
    proj_coords, data.air_temperature_c, test_size=0.3, random_state=0
)

The returned train and test variables are tuples containing coordinates, data, and (optionally) weights arrays. Since we’re not using weights, the third element of the tuple will be None:

print(train)
((array([ -9471409.04145469,  -9242651.69892226,  -9518618.69368063,
        -9226352.10603726,  -9196090.97662381,  -9211980.21676048,
        -9111443.79343314,  -9285738.73749109,  -9261270.26198931,
        -9322307.84752338,  -9449918.0091497 ,  -9210462.86590059,
        -9437254.33247619,  -9336002.17761117,  -9770852.03064925,
        -9286998.42499748,  -9121969.81858082,  -9225655.46067393,
        -9784479.55912689,  -9724577.60096593,  -9119011.46155829,
        -9366406.45333221,  -9104334.19349208,  -9468488.85678097,
        -9512730.60889723,  -9752004.43349022,  -9474730.03578958,
        -9295711.26358295,  -9407680.3053389 ,  -9409483.94881389,
        -9113314.23851832,  -9581641.24134595,  -9051780.41245142,
        -9151620.1904154 ,  -9526253.16341599,  -9370920.33356321,
        -9422548.43514848,  -9363887.07831951,  -9926719.2733836 ,
        -9263865.98169933, -10151535.32091524,  -9105488.90703955,
        -9399024.72527645,  -9275584.89274308,  -9287132.02821771,
        -9254036.60191507,  -9356519.81502484,  -9300826.35830558,
        -9088836.21992941,  -9329331.55967991,  -9705882.69320157,
        -9544881.26957023,  -9339151.39637705,  -9260420.92723128,
        -9092882.48888909,  -9202923.82703691,  -9252023.01052236,
        -9250143.02235004,  -9110031.41653214,  -9210586.92603379,
        -9192082.88001273,  -9144987.74483283,  -9265793.68530754,
        -9038200.59940965,  -9241182.06349818,  -9289031.10256449,
        -9405189.55958775,  -9354792.51624734,  -9330810.73819114,
        -9321372.62498082,  -9228556.55917334,  -9199536.03109192,
        -9278581.42211417,  -9229978.47916156,  -9319244.51654206,
        -9297171.35591977,  -9275775.75448643,  -9559682.59776963,
        -9197073.91460223,  -9491697.64477644,  -9185221.40033809,
        -9486172.19730542,  -9098512.91031894,  -9357970.36427462,
        -9348971.2330741 ,  -9415391.11977161,  -9570580.80331691,
        -9298450.12960044,  -9786178.22864295,  -9638164.94664898,
        -9374995.23178449,  -9135062.93417687,  -9363782.10436067,
        -9061161.26713871,  -9641390.51011218,  -9244388.54078699,
        -9743587.43060695,  -9128583.17798902,  -9688294.78354872,
        -9878049.52882075,  -9261222.54655341,  -9959308.91606633,
        -9374995.23178449,  -9324979.91193077, -10002090.57584577,
        -9291378.70200816,  -9717038.56210237,  -9108943.50459486,
        -9187130.01777196,  -9178474.43770947,  -9821430.39264604,
        -9676089.17505937,  -9590325.45066986,  -9334752.033192  ,
        -9349658.33535028,  -9217667.89671332,  -9192989.47329381,
        -9735189.51389807,  -9062249.17907602,  -9332852.95884533,
        -9455815.63702027,  -9796236.64251933,  -9443505.05457202,
        -9320723.69505337,  -9754266.14514927,  -9765097.54908629,
        -9081077.6900608 ,  -9042075.09280036,  -9433427.55452137,
        -9587615.21391383]), array([2657710.28293861, 3302077.73567252, 2899046.15133399,
       2838589.68737716, 3049850.71722841, 3290767.45780106,
       2931160.45084784, 3271137.71227972, 3285325.92731206,
       3104893.52310543, 3247812.59589509, 3166662.55342553,
       3287606.04132201, 3103141.68482877, 3197876.76156001,
       3149242.24908431, 3067381.83156894, 3400585.90023853,
       3243911.5995015 , 3290869.09139339, 2992634.70248073,
       3169418.17605082, 3246497.10552016, 2817264.46474637,
       3252930.02674656, 3200327.43647367, 3459184.29516943,
       3112292.18628403, 2917869.77563751, 3197809.62807528,
       3290225.42947942, 3652939.53050434, 3222645.66433888,
       2963817.97546003, 2824339.57488837, 3107155.82534808,
       2698337.04679593, 2601703.23660133, 3025820.22660258,
       3166283.29483646, 3185632.21052805, 3023883.40574366,
       3417009.35720713, 3393428.62105992, 3316162.95136998,
       3082031.84084665, 2953318.41751121, 2933549.90421567,
       2932676.98398158, 3020406.81467849, 3574040.01091357,
       2790505.48355737, 2973418.65910265, 3307698.11129963,
       2945505.02203083, 3311522.23776724, 2975313.52946633,
       2861050.32840049, 2887880.3960125 , 2945898.28967202,
       2941474.84700705, 3225124.76062141, 3281387.74953726,
       3159592.7976058 , 3315823.31326005, 2571845.86314014,
       3331844.27865595, 2740231.34771917, 3387759.04557859,
       3060081.02436475, 3041845.53079302, 3210124.8374159 ,
       3164074.94938398, 3271836.50108902, 2579123.45324659,
       2545954.59014788, 3342747.49976745, 2979356.30060547,
       3009203.6131726 , 2719110.10495866, 2846814.97160993,
       3188985.42191104, 2983466.36042869, 3294675.45126596,
       3039773.54716658, 3071437.56540843, 3483134.04990316,
       3294607.6695262 , 3667917.1194501 , 3619924.68699415,
       2573548.51452294, 2821249.74463367, 2683074.91768678,
       3285461.36507139, 3652271.03785311, 3283204.30900926,
       3210853.02111693, 2943844.71518428, 3230601.11578242,
       3137567.17555594, 2777047.34270749, 2945144.53916802,
       3066497.95513723, 3110760.99744545, 3188091.12461515,
       3298991.83921469, 3394820.85278175, 3391739.95155904,
       3286590.08456857, 3389059.21988513, 3085628.36101872,
       3630202.83368938, 3134419.72201146, 3256654.45390054,
       2573738.88783378, 3339785.07776942, 3063935.13249589,
       3648601.05705207, 3330211.5352512 , 3142162.17467495,
       2982622.30031315, 3282673.97488324, 3183676.67838886,
       3006522.74236789, 2990221.2234946 , 3532083.29147308,
       2942206.50247381, 3121339.67312344, 2913261.59698675,
       3259243.23756799])), (array([18.15166667, 12.17857143, 16.45916667, 16.60084507, 12.41170213,
        9.67159091, 16.33043478,  9.43978723, 11.10313725, 10.22955556,
       11.57575758, 12.47194444, 12.22138889, 10.36794118,  8.775     ,
       10.46055556, 12.55241379, 11.78611111,  7.89736111,  7.06944444,
       14.57882353, 12.33319444, 11.96138889, 16.88692308, 10.20833333,
        9.1525    ,  9.64888889, 10.29677419, 15.16444444, 12.81565217,
       10.        ,  3.16277778, 13.49071429, 14.98529412, 16.66666667,
       13.06835821, 16.63416667, 20.43375   ,  5.96285714, 13.76470588,
        9.16391304, 13.8736    , 10.99888889, 11.23633803,  9.751875  ,
       12.43888889, 10.94418605, 15.23805556, 16.66589744, 11.40892857,
        4.984     , 18.08955224, 11.45891304, 12.05545455, 16.13939394,
       11.18275362, 14.49676056, 15.90777778, 18.8625    , 14.27527778,
       14.97291667, 10.73239437,  8.98125   , 11.89032258, 11.46025641,
       22.6082    , 10.77111111, 16.40823529,  9.23611111, 10.82863636,
       12.57958333, 11.18545455, 11.13193548, 10.56277778, 20.97333333,
       23.26113208, 10.365     , 14.46875   , 14.21430556, 16.8525    ,
       17.01530612, 12.83722222, 15.22228571,  9.005     , 14.1       ,
       14.19444444,  9.02333333, 12.11923077,  2.1525    ,  5.64638889,
       21.09483871, 19.73611111, 18.09676056, 11.48449275,  4.29166667,
        9.78117647, 10.1875    , 16.36536585,  8.73277778,  7.70694444,
       17.2974    , 15.35777778, 14.53130435, 16.58333333,  7.52666667,
       11.37028571,  5.79375   ,  8.54088235,  9.196     , 10.37263889,
       11.39375   ,  7.08166667, 11.74291667, 10.86027778, 20.47454545,
       10.9936    , 12.47652778,  3.43633803, 10.0825    ,  9.59677419,
       13.55277778,  6.09319444, 20.58333333, 11.65820513, 14.4926087 ,
        3.14875   , 16.80952381, 12.45724138, 15.76208333, 11.69902778]),), (None,))
print(test)
((array([ -9355174.23973406,  -9305731.50511056,  -9378946.06987249,
        -9894654.50049513,  -9357159.20186525,  -9310436.24708494,
        -9176098.20900436,  -9848465.95859632,  -9657890.50782771,
        -9408987.70828107,  -9592090.92179618,  -9397058.84931957,
        -9614660.3229513 ,  -9438991.174341  ,  -9220530.82286406,
        -9464280.35533937,  -9148327.82534205,  -9254885.93667311,
        -9284574.48085645,  -9103675.72047743,  -9617332.38735867,
        -9038401.00424027,  -9631570.67341502,  -9133335.63539924,
        -9125099.95117223,  -9369183.49169843,  -8985427.32736408,
        -9520794.51755526,  -9397182.90945276,  -8972410.55646536,
        -9418511.70927591,  -9312192.17512406,  -9633794.21272551,
        -9386466.02256181,  -9298192.46624686, -10151936.13057628,
        -9335849.48821648,  -9334064.93091582,  -8951759.31583123,
        -9066696.25769684,  -9086927.60249552,  -9399253.75936852,
        -9167595.31833663,  -9052610.66103518,  -9401849.47907855,
        -9332280.37361521,  -8991029.11953241,  -8973832.47645352,
        -9529249.69278712,  -9266070.43483542,  -9429505.34569483,
        -8999875.56133822,  -9322689.57101016,  -9604983.63256177,
        -9104467.79671247,  -9706970.60513881]), array([2719870.27460582, 2743685.56324252, 2933768.14517002,
       3027361.13101297, 2757426.84021469, 3028296.78889616,
       2903724.5557224 , 3182157.20869187, 3066100.23492454,
       3255225.28091213, 2860584.19616269, 2934171.90242784,
       3714012.76916745, 3011874.16439619, 3080991.84629854,
       2915167.81938923, 2873187.46869299, 3003831.55941359,
       2735051.95799933, 2953788.49303643, 2915178.71303919,
       3249859.25595487, 2916780.19714376, 3182123.69352164,
       3337515.62533228, 3230904.19741823, 3187923.45258655,
       3041327.49695635, 2912727.91396922, 2979696.00616845,
       2954947.37073634, 3348209.31923159, 3284716.48014213,
       3043124.19066597, 3246452.13452785, 3189924.51834186,
       3339251.70946121, 2715192.2711302 , 2992766.36237038,
       3024323.56139652, 3192216.72345509, 3430837.16378734,
       3327060.19688609, 2904921.67586422, 2871114.86619099,
       2807032.29570529, 2992876.08017689, 3082728.91614068,
       3254021.33225593, 3216131.11265388, 3253177.52895142,
       3265222.50231348, 2744264.94274218, 3049585.98626738,
       3129450.24999779, 3452568.99011507])), (array([17.71611111, 17.3918    , 10.73421875,  8.08555556, 16.258125  ,
       16.18181818, 15.87828571,  7.47625   , 11.02857143, 12.25472222,
       17.16923077, 15.60208333,  5.04152778, 13.14263889, 12.47835821,
       16.69304348, 18.73916667, 11.46194444, 18.38255319, 16.02173913,
       16.57884615, 10.55866667, 16.48916667, 13.43583333, 10.67041667,
       11.90319444, 11.49557143, 12.17826087, 14.27805556, 17.43382353,
       12.95833333, 11.04708333,  9.60486111, 13.46      , 10.58730159,
        7.39333333, 10.11722222, 17.7375    , 17.10013889, 14.64180556,
       12.44957143,  9.68391304, 11.93055556, 20.34757576, 15.4025    ,
       16.76319444, 17.33347222, 13.55152778, 10.49541667, 11.92041667,
       10.42583333, 12.69078125, 17.22138889, 10.33333333, 12.80555556,
        3.85638889]),), (None,))

Let’s plot these two datasets with different colors:

plt.figure(figsize=(8, 6))
ax = plt.axes()
ax.set_title("Air temperature measurements for Texas")
ax.plot(train[0][0], train[0][1], ".r", label="train")
ax.plot(test[0][0], test[0][1], ".b", label="test")
ax.legend()
ax.set_aspect("equal")
plt.show()
Air temperature measurements for Texas

We can pass the training dataset to the fit method of most gridders using Python’s argument expansion using the * symbol.

Spline(mindist=0)
In a Jupyter environment, please rerun this cell to show the HTML representation or trust the notebook.
On GitHub, the HTML representation is unable to render, please try loading this page with nbviewer.org.


Let’s plot the gridded result to see what it looks like. First, we’ll create a geographic grid:

grid = spline.grid(
    region=region,
    spacing=spacing,
    projection=projection,
    dims=["latitude", "longitude"],
    data_names="temperature",
)
print(grid)
<xarray.Dataset> Size: 18kB
Dimensions:      (latitude: 43, longitude: 51)
Coordinates:
  * longitude    (longitude) float64 408B -106.4 -106.1 -105.9 ... -94.06 -93.8
  * latitude     (latitude) float64 344B 25.91 26.16 26.41 ... 35.91 36.16 36.41
Data variables:
    temperature  (latitude, longitude) float64 18kB 36.72 36.32 ... 4.568 4.711
Attributes:
    metadata:  Generated by Spline(mindist=0)

Then, we’ll mask out grid points that are too far from any given data point and plot the grid:

mask = vd.distance_mask(
    (data.longitude, data.latitude),
    maxdist=3 * spacing * 111e3,
    coordinates=vd.grid_coordinates(region, spacing=spacing),
    projection=projection,
)
grid = grid.where(mask)

plt.figure(figsize=(8, 6))
ax = plt.axes(projection=ccrs.Mercator())
ax.set_title("Gridded temperature")
pc = grid.temperature.plot.pcolormesh(
    ax=ax,
    cmap="plasma",
    transform=ccrs.PlateCarree(),
    add_colorbar=False,
    add_labels=False,
)
plt.colorbar(pc).set_label("C")
ax.plot(data.longitude, data.latitude, ".k", markersize=1, transform=ccrs.PlateCarree())
vd.datasets.setup_texas_wind_map(ax)
plt.show()
Gridded temperature

Scoring#

Gridders in Verde implement the score method that calculates the R² coefficient of determination for a given comparison dataset (test in our case). The R² score is at most 1, meaning a perfect prediction, but has no lower bound.

score = spline.score(*test)
print("R² score:", score)
/home/runner/work/verde/verde/doc/tutorials_src/model_evaluation.py:144: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = spline.score(*test)
R² score: 0.8404552995850606

That’s a good score meaning that our gridder is able to accurately predict data that wasn’t used in the gridding algorithm.

Caution

Once caveat for this score is that it is highly dependent on the particular split that we made. Changing the random number generator seed in verde.train_test_split will result in a different score.

# Use 1 as a seed instead of 0
train_other, test_other = vd.train_test_split(
    proj_coords, data.air_temperature_c, test_size=0.3, random_state=1
)

print("R² score with seed 1:", vd.Spline().fit(*train_other).score(*test_other))
/home/runner/work/verde/verde/doc/tutorials_src/model_evaluation.py:162: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  print("R² score with seed 1:", vd.Spline().fit(*train_other).score(*test_other))
R² score with seed 1: 0.7832246935451503

Cross-validation#

A more robust way of scoring the gridders is to use function verde.cross_val_score, which (by default) uses a k-fold cross-validation by default. It will split the data k times and return the score on each fold. We can then take a mean of these scores.

scores = vd.cross_val_score(vd.Spline(), proj_coords, data.air_temperature_c)
print("k-fold scores:", scores)
print("Mean score:", np.mean(scores))
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
k-fold scores: [0.81655898 0.72019255 0.81596348 0.87740087 0.75006854]
Mean score: 0.7960368857076603

You can also use most cross-validation splitter classes from sklearn.model_selection by specifying the cv argument. For example, if we want to shuffle then split the data n times (sklearn.model_selection.ShuffleSplit):

shuffle = ShuffleSplit(n_splits=10, test_size=0.3, random_state=0)

scores = vd.cross_val_score(
    vd.Spline(), proj_coords, data.air_temperature_c, cv=shuffle
)
print("shuffle scores:", scores)
print("Mean score:", np.mean(scores))
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
shuffle scores: [0.8404553  0.79219264 0.60098099 0.73123421 0.67325199 0.70560489
 0.68905623 0.83517217 0.86908658 0.84133251]
Mean score: 0.7578367521251231

Parallel cross-validation#

Cross-validation involves running several model fit and score operations which are independent of each other. Because of this, they are prime targets for parallelization. Verde uses the excellent Dask library for parallel execution.

To run verde.cross_val_score with Dask, use the delayed argument:

scores = vd.cross_val_score(
    vd.Spline(), proj_coords, data.air_temperature_c, delayed=True
)
print("Delayed k-fold scores:", scores)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/sklearn/base.py:125: FutureWarning: The mindist parameter of verde.Spline is no longer required and will be removed in Verde 2.0.0. Use the default value to obtain the future behavior.
  new_object = klass(**new_object_params)
Delayed k-fold scores: [Delayed('fit_score-70a38e35-435e-41aa-bd97-6d1e98c0f1f9'), Delayed('fit_score-0f431ec4-ddd9-40b9-81c6-2abc9fd0ae46'), Delayed('fit_score-f7cebfd0-1252-47bc-b258-40e74fbe3b1b'), Delayed('fit_score-04990632-b090-43aa-9ed1-e4528ac36199'), Delayed('fit_score-59f188b3-3d08-45ce-94c4-866f2ee8819e')]

In this case, the scores haven’t actually been computed yet (hence the “delayed” term). Instead, Verde scheduled the operations with Dask. Since we are interested only in the mean score, we can schedule the mean as well using dask.delayed:

mean_score = dask.delayed(np.mean)(scores)
print("Delayed mean:", mean_score)
Delayed mean: Delayed('mean-28b2a493-fdc9-4fdf-b496-e6adf3948e05')

To run the scheduled computations and get the mean score, use dask.compute or .compute(). Dask will automatically execute things in parallel.

mean_score = mean_score.compute()
print("Mean score:", mean_score)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/model_selection.py:784: FutureWarning: The default scoring will change from R² to negative root mean squared error (RMSE) in Verde 2.0.0. This may change model selection results slightly.
  score = estimator.score(*test_data)
Mean score: 0.7960368857076603

Note

Dask will run many fit operations in parallel, which can be memory intensive. Make sure you have enough RAM to run multiple fits.

Improving the score#

That score is not bad but it could be better. The default arguments for Spline aren’t optimal for this dataset. We could try different combinations manually until we get a good score. A better way is to do this automatically. In Model Selection we’ll go over how to do just that.

Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 1.058 seconds)

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