.. DO NOT EDIT.
.. THIS FILE WAS AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED BY SPHINX-GALLERY.
.. TO MAKE CHANGES, EDIT THE SOURCE PYTHON FILE:
.. "tutorials/weights.py"
.. LINE NUMBERS ARE GIVEN BELOW.
.. only:: html
.. note::
:class: sphx-glr-download-link-note
:ref:`Go to the end `
to download the full example code
.. rst-class:: sphx-glr-example-title
.. _sphx_glr_tutorials_weights.py:
Using Weights
=============
One of the advantages of using a Green's functions approach to interpolation is
that we can easily weight the data to give each point more or less influence
over the results. This is a good way to not let data points with large
uncertainties bias the interpolation or the data decimation.
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 16-27
.. code-block:: Python
import cartopy.crs as ccrs
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import pyproj
# The weights vary a lot so it's better to plot them using a logarithmic color
# scale
from matplotlib.colors import LogNorm
import verde as vd
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 28-31
We'll use some sample GPS vertical ground velocity which has some variable
uncertainties associated with each data point. The data are loaded as a
pandas.DataFrame:
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 31-34
.. code-block:: Python
data = vd.datasets.fetch_california_gps()
print(data.head())
.. rst-class:: sphx-glr-script-out
.. code-block:: none
latitude longitude height ... std_north std_east std_up
0 34.116409 242.906804 762.11978 ... 0.0002 0.00037 0.00053
1 34.116409 242.906804 762.10883 ... 0.0002 0.00037 0.00053
2 34.116409 242.906805 762.09364 ... 0.0002 0.00037 0.00053
3 34.116409 242.906805 762.09073 ... 0.0002 0.00037 0.00053
4 34.116409 242.906805 762.07699 ... 0.0002 0.00037 0.00053
[5 rows x 9 columns]
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 35-38
Let's plot our data using Cartopy to see what the vertical velocities and
their uncertainties look like. We'll make a function for this so we can reuse
it later on.
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 38-79
.. code-block:: Python
def plot_data(coordinates, velocity, weights, title_data, title_weights):
"Make two maps of our data, one with the data and one with the weights"
fig, axes = plt.subplots(
1, 2, figsize=(9.5, 7), subplot_kw=dict(projection=ccrs.Mercator())
)
crs = ccrs.PlateCarree()
ax = axes[0]
ax.set_title(title_data)
maxabs = vd.maxabs(velocity)
pc = ax.scatter(
*coordinates,
c=velocity,
s=30,
cmap="seismic",
vmin=-maxabs,
vmax=maxabs,
transform=crs,
)
plt.colorbar(pc, ax=ax, orientation="horizontal", pad=0.05).set_label("m/yr")
vd.datasets.setup_california_gps_map(ax)
ax = axes[1]
ax.set_title(title_weights)
pc = ax.scatter(
*coordinates, c=weights, s=30, cmap="magma", transform=crs, norm=LogNorm()
)
plt.colorbar(pc, ax=ax, orientation="horizontal", pad=0.05)
vd.datasets.setup_california_gps_map(ax)
plt.show()
# Plot the data and the uncertainties
plot_data(
(data.longitude, data.latitude),
data.velocity_up,
data.std_up,
"Vertical GPS velocity",
"Uncertainty (m/yr)",
)
.. image-sg:: /tutorials/images/sphx_glr_weights_001.png
:alt: Vertical GPS velocity, Uncertainty (m/yr)
:srcset: /tutorials/images/sphx_glr_weights_001.png
:class: sphx-glr-single-img
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 80-93
Weights in data decimation
--------------------------
:class:`~verde.BlockReduce` can't output weights for each data point because
it doesn't know which reduction operation it's using. If you want to do a
weighted interpolation, like :class:`verde.Spline`,
:class:`~verde.BlockReduce` won't propagate the weights to the interpolation
function. If your data are relatively smooth, you can use
:class:`verde.BlockMean` instead to decimated data and produce weights. It
can calculate different kinds of weights, depending on configuration options
and what you give it as input.
Let's explore all of the possibilities.
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 93-96
.. code-block:: Python
mean = vd.BlockMean(spacing=15 / 60)
print(mean)
.. rst-class:: sphx-glr-script-out
.. code-block:: none
BlockMean(spacing=0.25)
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 97-118
Option 1: No input weights
++++++++++++++++++++++++++
In this case, we'll get a standard mean and the output weights will be 1 over
the variance of the data in each block:
.. math::
\bar{d} = \dfrac{\sum\limits_{i=1}^N d_i}{N}
\: , \qquad
\sigma^2 = \dfrac{\sum\limits_{i=1}^N (d_i - \bar{d})^2}{N}
\: , \qquad
w = \dfrac{1}{\sigma^2}
in which :math:`N` is the number of data points in the block, :math:`d_i` are
the data values in the block, and the output values for the block are the
mean data :math:`\bar{d}` and the weight :math:`w`.
Notice that data points that are more uncertain don't necessarily have
smaller weights. Instead, the blocks that contain data with sharper
variations end up having smaller weights, like the data points in the south.
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 118-130
.. code-block:: Python
coordinates, velocity, weights = mean.filter(
coordinates=(data.longitude, data.latitude), data=data.velocity_up
)
plot_data(
coordinates,
velocity,
weights,
"Mean vertical GPS velocity",
"Weights based on data variance",
)
.. image-sg:: /tutorials/images/sphx_glr_weights_002.png
:alt: Mean vertical GPS velocity, Weights based on data variance
:srcset: /tutorials/images/sphx_glr_weights_002.png
:class: sphx-glr-single-img
.. rst-class:: sphx-glr-script-out
.. code-block:: none
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/blockreduce.py:469: FutureWarning: The provided callable is currently using SeriesGroupBy.var. In a future version of pandas, the provided callable will be used directly. To keep current behavior pass the string "var" instead.
blocked = table.groupby("block").aggregate(reduction)
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 131-154
Option 2: Input weights are not related to the uncertainty of the data
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
This is the case when data weights are chosen by the user, not based on the
measurement uncertainty. For example, when you need to give less importance
to a portion of the data and no uncertainties are available. The mean will be
weighted and the output weights will be 1 over the weighted variance of the
data in each block:
.. math::
\bar{d}^* = \dfrac{\sum\limits_{i=1}^N w_i d_i}{\sum\limits_{i=1}^N w_i}
\: , \qquad
\sigma^2_w = \dfrac{\sum\limits_{i=1}^N w_i(d_i - \bar{d}*)^2}{
\sum\limits_{i=1}^N w_i}
\: , \qquad
w = \dfrac{1}{\sigma^2_w}
in which :math:`w_i` are the input weights in the block.
The output will be similar to the one above but points with larger initial
weights will have a smaller influence on the mean and also on the output
weights.
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 154-173
.. code-block:: Python
# We'll use 1 over the squared data uncertainty as our input weights.
data["weights"] = 1 / data.std_up**2
# By default, BlockMean assumes that weights are not related to uncertainties
coordinates, velocity, weights = mean.filter(
coordinates=(data.longitude, data.latitude),
data=data.velocity_up,
weights=data.weights,
)
plot_data(
coordinates,
velocity,
weights,
"Weighted mean vertical GPS velocity",
"Weights based on weighted data variance",
)
.. image-sg:: /tutorials/images/sphx_glr_weights_003.png
:alt: Weighted mean vertical GPS velocity, Weights based on weighted data variance
:srcset: /tutorials/images/sphx_glr_weights_003.png
:class: sphx-glr-single-img
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 174-200
Option 3: Input weights are 1 over the data uncertainty squared
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
If input weights are 1 over the data uncertainty squared, we can use
uncertainty propagation to calculate the uncertainty of the weighted mean and
use it to define our output weights. Use option ``uncertainty=True`` to tell
:class:`~verde.BlockMean` to calculate weights based on the propagated
uncertainty of the data. The output weights will be 1 over the propagated
uncertainty squared. In this case, the **input weights must not be
normalized**. This is preferable if you know the uncertainty of the data.
.. math::
w_i = \dfrac{1}{\sigma_i^2}
\: , \qquad
\sigma_{\bar{d}^*}^2 = \dfrac{1}{\sum\limits_{i=1}^N w_i}
\: , \qquad
w = \dfrac{1}{\sigma_{\bar{d}^*}^2}
in which :math:`\sigma_i` are the input data uncertainties in the block and
:math:`\sigma_{\bar{d}^*}` is the propagated uncertainty of the weighted mean
in the block.
Notice that in this case the output weights reflect the input data
uncertainties. Less weight is given to the data points that had larger
uncertainties from the start.
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 200-218
.. code-block:: Python
# Configure BlockMean to assume that the input weights are 1/uncertainty**2
mean = vd.BlockMean(spacing=15 / 60, uncertainty=True)
coordinates, velocity, weights = mean.filter(
coordinates=(data.longitude, data.latitude),
data=data.velocity_up,
weights=data.weights,
)
plot_data(
coordinates,
velocity,
weights,
"Weighted mean vertical GPS velocity",
"Weights based on data uncertainty",
)
.. image-sg:: /tutorials/images/sphx_glr_weights_004.png
:alt: Weighted mean vertical GPS velocity, Weights based on data uncertainty
:srcset: /tutorials/images/sphx_glr_weights_004.png
:class: sphx-glr-single-img
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 219-235
.. note::
Output weights are always normalized to the ]0, 1] range. See
:func:`verde.variance_to_weights`.
Interpolation with weights
--------------------------
The Green's functions based interpolation classes in Verde, like
:class:`~verde.Spline`, can take input weights if you want to give less
importance to some data points. In our case, the points with larger
uncertainties shouldn't have the same influence in our gridded solution as
the points with lower uncertainties.
Let's setup a projection to grid our geographic data using the Cartesian
spline gridder.
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 236-243
.. code-block:: Python
projection = pyproj.Proj(proj="merc", lat_ts=data.latitude.mean())
proj_coords = projection(data.longitude.values, data.latitude.values)
region = vd.get_region(coordinates)
spacing = 5 / 60
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 244-250
Now we can grid our data using a weighted spline. We'll use the block mean
results with uncertainty based weights.
Note that the weighted spline solution will only work on a non-exact
interpolation. So we'll need to use some damping regularization or not use
the data locations for the point forces. Here, we'll apply a bit of damping.
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 250-267
.. code-block:: Python
spline = vd.Chain(
[
# Convert the spacing to meters because Spline is a Cartesian gridder
("mean", vd.BlockMean(spacing=spacing * 111e3, uncertainty=True)),
("spline", vd.Spline(damping=1e-10)),
]
).fit(proj_coords, data.velocity_up, data.weights)
grid = spline.grid(
region=region,
spacing=spacing,
projection=projection,
dims=["latitude", "longitude"],
data_names="velocity",
)
# Avoid showing interpolation outside of the convex hull of the data points.
grid = vd.convexhull_mask(coordinates, grid=grid, projection=projection)
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 268-269
Calculate an unweighted spline as well for comparison.
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 269-286
.. code-block:: Python
spline_unweighted = vd.Chain(
[
("mean", vd.BlockReduce(np.mean, spacing=spacing * 111e3)),
("spline", vd.Spline()),
]
).fit(proj_coords, data.velocity_up)
grid_unweighted = spline_unweighted.grid(
region=region,
spacing=spacing,
projection=projection,
dims=["latitude", "longitude"],
data_names="velocity",
)
grid_unweighted = vd.convexhull_mask(
coordinates, grid=grid_unweighted, projection=projection
)
.. rst-class:: sphx-glr-script-out
.. code-block:: none
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/blockreduce.py:179: FutureWarning: The provided callable is currently using DataFrameGroupBy.mean. In a future version of pandas, the provided callable will be used directly. To keep current behavior pass the string "mean" instead.
blocked = pd.DataFrame(columns).groupby("block").aggregate(reduction)
/usr/share/miniconda/envs/test/lib/python3.12/site-packages/verde/blockreduce.py:236: FutureWarning: The provided callable is currently using DataFrameGroupBy.mean. In a future version of pandas, the provided callable will be used directly. To keep current behavior pass the string "mean" instead.
grouped = table.groupby("block").aggregate(self.reduction)
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 287-288
Finally, plot the weighted and unweighted grids side by side.
.. GENERATED FROM PYTHON SOURCE LINES 288-324
.. code-block:: Python
fig, axes = plt.subplots(
1, 2, figsize=(9.5, 7), subplot_kw=dict(projection=ccrs.Mercator())
)
crs = ccrs.PlateCarree()
ax = axes[0]
ax.set_title("Spline interpolation with weights")
maxabs = vd.maxabs(data.velocity_up)
pc = grid.velocity.plot.pcolormesh(
ax=ax,
cmap="seismic",
vmin=-maxabs,
vmax=maxabs,
transform=crs,
add_colorbar=False,
add_labels=False,
)
plt.colorbar(pc, ax=ax, orientation="horizontal", pad=0.05).set_label("m/yr")
ax.plot(data.longitude, data.latitude, ".k", markersize=0.1, transform=crs)
ax.coastlines()
vd.datasets.setup_california_gps_map(ax)
ax = axes[1]
ax.set_title("Spline interpolation without weights")
pc = grid_unweighted.velocity.plot.pcolormesh(
ax=ax,
cmap="seismic",
vmin=-maxabs,
vmax=maxabs,
transform=crs,
add_colorbar=False,
add_labels=False,
)
plt.colorbar(pc, ax=ax, orientation="horizontal", pad=0.05).set_label("m/yr")
ax.plot(data.longitude, data.latitude, ".k", markersize=0.1, transform=crs)
ax.coastlines()
vd.datasets.setup_california_gps_map(ax)
plt.show()
.. image-sg:: /tutorials/images/sphx_glr_weights_005.png
:alt: Spline interpolation with weights, Spline interpolation without weights
:srcset: /tutorials/images/sphx_glr_weights_005.png
:class: sphx-glr-single-img
.. rst-class:: sphx-glr-timing
**Total running time of the script:** (0 minutes 2.326 seconds)
.. _sphx_glr_download_tutorials_weights.py:
.. only:: html
.. container:: sphx-glr-footer sphx-glr-footer-example
.. container:: sphx-glr-download sphx-glr-download-jupyter
:download:`Download Jupyter notebook: weights.ipynb `
.. container:: sphx-glr-download sphx-glr-download-python
:download:`Download Python source code: weights.py `
.. only:: html
.. rst-class:: sphx-glr-signature
`Gallery generated by Sphinx-Gallery `_